ii-1. Mind Only
Vasubandhu’s Triṃśikā :
The Thirty Verses on Consciousness-only
1. Various indeed are the usage of the terms ātman and dharma: They [all] refer to the transformations of consciousness threefold is such transformation:
2. They are, namely, maturing, thinking, and representation of consciousness of object. There the maturing [consciousness Is otherwise called the store-consciousnes which carries the seeds of all [past experiences].
3. It has [within itself] the representations of consciousness Of unknown objects and places;
It is always associated with touch, attentiveness, knowledge conception and volition.
4. The feeling [therein] is that of indifference;
it [i.e. the store-consciousness] is unobscured and undefined; similarly indifferent are touch etc.,
And it [i.e. the store consciousness] is like a torrent of water.
5. And it ceases to exist at the attainment of arhattva. The consciousness called manas has the store-consciousness for its support and object. It is essentially an act of thinking.
6. It is always associated with four defilements, which are themselves obscured and undefined;
These four defilements are, namely, belief in self, ignorance about self, pride in self, and love of self.
7. It [i.e. the consciousness called manas] is associated
also with others like touch etc. which are all of the same nature as the region in which one is born. It does not belong to one in the state of arhatship; nor does it operate In the state of suppressed consciousness, nor in the supra-mundane path.
8. It is the second transformation [of consciousness].
The third transformation of consciousnes is the same as the perception of the sixfold object;
it could be either good or bad or indifferent in character.
9. It is associated with three kinds of mental factors:
Universal, Specific, and Good;
It is associated, similarly, with primary as well as secondary defilements; It is subject to three kinds of feelings, too.
10. Of those associates the first [namely the universal] ones are touch etc. The second [namely the specific] ones are desire, resolve and memory. Together with concentration and knowledge. Faith, sense of shame, fear of censure,
11. The triad of non-covetousness etc, courage,composure, equanimity along with alertness,
and harmlessness are the third [namely the good] ones.
The defilements are passionate attachment, grudge, stupidity,
12. Pride, false views, and doubt.
Anger, hatred, hypocrisy, envy, jealousy, spite along with deceit,
13. Dishonesty, arrogance, Harmfulness, shamelessness, defiance of censure, sluggishness, conceit, unbelief, indolence, carelessness, bad memory,
14. Distraction of mind, Thoughtlessness, remorse, sleepiness, seasoning and deliberation, are the secondary defilements.
The latter two couples [namely Remorse and sleepiness, reasoning and deliberation] can be of two kinds, [namely defiled and undefiled].
15. Depending on the conditions available the five sense-consciousnesses, together or separately, originate on the root-consciousness, just as waves originate on water.
16. The thought-consciousness, however, manifests itself at all times, except for those [i] who are bor into the region where beings are in a state of unconsciousness, [ii] who have entered either of the two trances, in which there is no operation of consciousness, [iii] who are unconscious by reaso of sleepiness or faint.
17. This [threefold] transformation of consciousnes is just the distinction [between subject and object]; What is thus distinguished, does not exist as [subject and object]. Therefore this is all mere representation of consciousness.
18. The consciousness contains all seeds;
Its such and such transformations proceed by mutual influence,
on account of which such and such [subject-object] discriminations arise.
19. Once the previous stage of maturation has been exhausted,
the impressions of deeds along with those of the two-fold grasping engender the next stage of maturation.
20. The subject-matter that is liable to subject-object distinction
by whatsoever sort of subject-object discrimination, is all just imagined nature; It does not exist.
21. The other-dependent nature, however, Is the act of grasper-grasped discrimination; it depends for its origin on conditions. The absolutely accomplished nature is the latter’s [i.e. the other dependent nature’s] perpetual devoidness of the former.
22. For that reason, indeed, It is said to be neither different, nor non-different from the other-dependent nature. It is like impermanence, etc.
As long as this absolutely accomplished natur is not seen, that other-dependent nature, too, is not seen.
23. Corresponding to the three-fold nature, there is also a three-fold naturelessness; referring to this fact it has been said that there is the naturelessness of all elements.
24. The first nature is natureless by its very definition,
the second nature, again, does not come into being by itself, and this constitutes the second kind of naturelessness.
25. That from which all elements have their ultimate reality, is the third naturelessness,it is also called suchness because it remains always as such;
That is itself the state in which one realizes the meaning of mere representation of consciousness, too.
26. As long as consciousness does not abide in the realization [that the subject-object designations] are mere representations of consciousness, The attachment to the twofold graspin will not cease to operate
27. One does not abide in the realization of mere representations of consciousness just on account of the [theoretical] perception that all this is mere representation of consciousness, if one places something before oneself.
28. When the mind no longer seizes on any object whatever, then the mind is established in the nature of mind only. When there is nothing that is grasped, that is mind only, because there is no grasping.
29. That is the supreme, world transcending knowledge, without mind and without support or object. From the abandonment of the two-fold faults, there occurs the revulsion of the store- consciousness.
30. That itself is the pure source-reality, Incomprehensible, auspicious, and unchangeable; being delightful, it is the emancipated body, which is also called the truth[-body] of the great sage.
Kochumuttom, T. 1982. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. (= Kochumuttom)
Wood, T. 1991. Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the Vijñānavāda. (Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy Monograph 9). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (= Wood)